Friday, October 26, 2007

ECFE Parents Meet with School Nutrition Director on Chocolate Milk

Several parents from the Winona Early Childhood Family Education program attended a Wednesday morning meeting with Lyn Halvorson, the school nutrition director for the Winona Area Public Schools, to discuss chocolate milk in the schools. Margaret Schild, director of Winona Community Education, also attended the meeting in her role as co-chair of the school district’s Wellness Committee.

The meeting was prompted by some parents’ concerns about the amount of extra sugar contained in the flavored milk. The chocolate skim milk served to students in WAPS contains 14 more grams of sugar and 60 more calories than white skim milk, with the extra calories presumably coming from the added sugar.

The parents expressed several concerns about making chocolate milk available to students at meals (breakfast and lunch) and during kindergartener’s snack time. Their primary concern was that the amount of sugar contained in one serving of chocolate milk (26 grams, including the 12 grams of naturally occurring sugar from lactose) represents about half of the discretionary calories recommended by the USDA on its food pyramid website,, for active five-year-old children. The parents said they worried that providing young kids with that much sugar through one or more servings of chocolate milk made it much more likely that they would exceed their recommended daily caloric intake from discretionary fats and sugars, increasing the risk of childhood diabetes and obesity. They also asked whether providing sweetened milk at every meal establishes unhealthy eating habits, with kids who have had a sugary drink at every meal for years as kindergarteners and elementary students becoming more likely to “graduate” to mealtime soda pop as teenagers.

Ms. Halvorson presented extensive information supporting the widespread practice of offering flavored milk to school children. (Some of the information she presented can be found in the post, “Milk Facts.”) She pointed out that the consensus among nutritionists and medical professionals is that chocolate milk consumption is not harmful to children and actually provides substantial benefits. She said that most children do not receive nearly enough calcium on a daily basis to build healthy bones and teeth. But studies show that children are more likely to drink more milk when the milk is flavored or packaged attractively. For example, eliminating chocolate milk in the New York City public schools reduced students’ milk consumption by 10 percent. Many nutritionists and medical professionals say that the extra sugar contained in chocolate milk is not significant enough to be a health concern for most children, and is outweighed by the benefits of providing kids with more calcium.

Parents at the meeting asked whether experts’ assertions that the extra sugar is not a concern for most kids applies equally to very young children, such as kindergarteners, whose overall caloric intake is less than the average elementary age child. They asked whether the schools could investigate the possibility of replacing sugary chocolate milk with a lower-sugar chocolate milk. They also suggested that parents ought to have some control over whether their young children are allowed to have chocolate milk at school.

Ms. Halvorson raised some concerns about the practicality of having cafeteria staff monitor kids’ milk choices. However, she suggested that she would be willing to investigate the possibility of providing more parental control over kindergarteners’ chocolate milk consumption during their snack time. She also said she would investigate whether a lower-sugar chocolate milk exists.

The meeting was sponsored and facilitated by the Early Childhood Family Education PTA, which has not taken a formal position on the issue other than to raise parents’ concerns with school district officials.

Milk Facts

Here are some facts about milk and kids, compiled by Lyn Halvorson, SNS, the school nutrition director for the Winona Area Public Schools:
  • More than half of the children ages 2-8 do not get the recommended daily servings of dairy.
  • More than three-quarters of the children ages 9-19 do not get the recommended daily servings of dairy.
  • The National Dairy Council, the School Nutrition Association, and the School Nutrition Foundation conducted a study and found that 97% of schools offer flavored milk. Over 70% of the milk consumed in schools is flavored.
  • Virtually all the calories in 100% juice and nearly one-half the calories in unflavored milk is from naturally-occurring sugars. See handout; fat-free white and 1% white contain 12 grams of naturally-occurring sugar, chocolate skim contains 26 grams (12 grams of naturally-occurring sugar and 14 grams of added sugar).
  • The importance of providing children with milk they like, and therefore will drink, was highlighted by the 2002 School Milk Pilot Test, which demonstrated that with simple product improvements – including flavors and packaging – milk consumption increased 37%.
  • A study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, showed that when compared to their peers, children who drank flavored milk drank more milk overall and are more likely to meet their calcium needs than those who did not.
  • Frank Greer, MD, FAAP, Chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition states, “The AAP recommends that children eat three servings of milk, flavored milk, cheese or yogurt a day.”
  • Robert P. Heaney, MD, Professor at Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska takes a realistic approach to flavored milk. “I favor milk consumption because of its many nutritional benefits. If there is a choices between flavored milk and no milk, there shouldn’t be any difficulty there; you have to go with the flavored milk because that is where you are going to get the nutrient package that you need.”
  • The kids who drank flavored milk in their diets reported higher milk intakes than those who drank plain milk. Source; Nutrient intakes and body measures of children and adolescents in the United States drinking flavored, plain or no milk. FASEB J 21:833.3
  • When it comes to flavored milk, the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Dietetics Association and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Committee agree that the added sugar in flavored milk does not negate milk’s many benefits. Specifically in regard to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), there is very little different between sucrose, which is granulated sugar, and HFCS. Once absorbed, they are indistinguishable to the human body.
  • In a recent survey among 4,000 3 A-Day of Dairy moms, 92% said that they were comfortable with their children drinking flavored milk at school.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

November Family Events Calendar

Library Storytimes • Tuesdays throughout November • Children’s Department, Winona Public Library
• Stories for toddlers, 10 - 10:20 am; preschoolers, 10:30-11 am; and families, 6:30-7 pm. No storytime in December. More info: 452-4592

American Queen docking • Mon, Nov. 5, 11 am - 5 pm • Levee Park

Winona Area Autism Spectrum Disorder Support Group • Mon, Nov. 5, 6-7:30 pm • Goodview Elementary preschool classrooms, 5100 W 9th St.
• The Winona Area Autism Spectrum Disorder Support Group is a newly formed group for families, friends, and primary providers of persons with ASD (including Asperger's PDD/NOS or other related disorders). Onsite childcare by Home and Community Options is provided. More info: Stacey Marg, parent facilitator, at 452-8731 or Karen Bunkowski, social worker, at 457-6264

EagleWatch Opener • Sat, Nov. 3 – Sun, Nov. 4, 10 am - 5 pm • 50 Pembroke Ave, Wabasha
• The National Eagle Center’s observation deck opens for the fall bald eagle and tundra swan migration; volunteers on hand to assist with scopes. Music, storytelling, Native American dance, new exhibits, and presentations. Note that the center has relocated to its new building. Admission is $5 for adults, children under age 5 free. More info: or 877-332-4537

Flippin’ for Books • Sat, Nov 10, 9 am - noon • Winona Senior High School
• Come join us for a free pancake breakfast (9-10:30), plus dramatic storytelling by local celebrities, free books, children’s activities (build a book, butterfly making, face painting, etc.), family resources from many local organizations, a car seat clinic, and McGruff the Crime Dog. This event was planned especially for families with young children.

Old World Christmas • Fri, Nov. 23 – Sun, Nov. 25, 8 am-5 pm • downtown Winona
• Wagon rides and visits with Santa, strolling carolers, Christmas decorations and lighting, sales. More info: 452-3722

Rotary Holiday Lights • Fri, Nov. 23 – Mon, Dec. 31 • Riverside Park, La Crosse
• More than one million lights illuminate Riverside Park from 5-10 pm daily (5-9 pm on Dec. 24 & 25), including a 140-foot Christmas tree, drive-through tunnel of lights, live entertainment on select nights, hayrides, carriage rides, animated light displays, live Nativity scene, and Santa. More info: (800) 658-9424 or

Kid-Friendly Halloween Events around Winona

Halloween Fun Night • Mon, Oct. 29, 6-8 pm • SMU Toner Center
• Face-painting, coloring contest, games, and trick-or-treating in the residence halls. Stop at the guard booth at the main entrance for parking directions.

Halloween Stories and Crafts • Tue, Oct. 30 • Children’s Department, Winona Public Library
• Halloween stories and crafts for toddlers, 10 - 10:20 am; preschoolers, 10:30-11 am; and families, 6:30-7 pm. More info: 452-4592

Preschool Halloween Party • Wed, Oct. 31, 9-11 am • East End Rec Center

WSU Trick-or-Treating • Wed, Oct. 31, 6-8 pm • WSU residence halls
• Winona State University Housing and Residence Life invite Winona community members and their children into the WSU Residence Halls for trick-or-treating. The following halls are participating: Prentiss-Lucas, 265 W. King St.; Sheehan, 264 W. Mark St.; The Quad (Morey, Shepard, Conway and Richards), 256 W. King St.; and Lourdes, 457 Gould St. More info: Jodi Anderson at (507) 457-5320

Kensington Trick-or-Treat • Wed, Oct. 31, 4-6 pm • The Kensington, 157 W. Third St.
• Kensington residents, many in costume, distribute treats to young trick-or-treaters in the building’s cafeteria area.

Halloween Safe Night • Wed, Oct. 31, 5-7 pm • Goodview Elementary School
• Hot dogs, pop, cookies and candy, free goodie bags and an appearance by McGruff the Crime Dog. Open to children through fourth grade.

Fall Harvest Festival • Wed, Oct. 31, 5-7 pm • Rock Solid, 75 W. 3rd St., Winona
• Activities for children of all ages from 5-7 pm, including inflatable bouncing and climbing equipment, costume contest, games, rock climbing, airbrush tattoos, and hot apple cider. More info: 452-2125

Tuesday, October 23, 2007


9 to Noon
Saturday, November 10, 2007
Winona Senior High Concourse

Join us for a morning of fun for families with young children!!

Pancake Breakfast 9 to 10:30
Storytelling with Local "Celebrities"
Children's Activities: Build-a-book, Face painting, Butterfly-making and More...
McGruff the Crime Dog
Resources for Families with Young Children
Car Seat Clinic
And MORE...
Every Child Receives a Book to Take Home

Wednesday, October 17, 2007

Minnesota Marine Art Museum Family Programs

Minnesota Marine Art Museum: Upcoming Programs

Family Storytelling: Saturday, October 20th
See artworks in a whole new way as Museum staff and volunteers read family-friendly stories in front of original artworks. This Saturday our spooky theme will be ghosts and goblins! All ages welcome, but stories are geared to 8 and under. Admission is free!

Toddler Tuesday: Tuesday, October 23rd
10:30-12noon: Come and go as you please!
Attention all Toddlers (not yet in kindergarten)! Grab your favorite grownup(s) and head over to the Museum for a kid-friendly discovery day in the galleries! Expect to do some activities, projects, exploring, and more! This bust morning will engage you in a variety of ways, and even give you and your grown-up something fun to think about the next time you visit!

The Minnesota Marine Art Museum is located at 800 Riverview Drive in Winona.
Our website is

Thursday, October 11, 2007

Infant cold medicines pulled from stores

From the Star Tribune:
Drug makers on Thursday voluntarily pulled kids' cold medicines off the market less than two weeks after the government warned of potential health risks to infants.

Products aimed at children under the age of two are being removed from store shelves due to "rare instantances of misuse" that could lead to accidental overdose, a trade group that represents over-the-counter drug makers said.

Cold medicines being withdrawn include: Johnson & Johnson Pediacare Infant Drops and Tylenol Concentrated Infants Drops, Wyeth's Dimetapp Decongestant Infant Drops, Novartis' Triaminic Infant & Toddler Thin Strips and Prestige Brands Holdings' Little Colds Decongestant Plus Cough.

Read the full story at the StarTribune.

Monday, October 8, 2007

Healthy Kids Club Kick-Off Event

Calling all 6-11 year olds! Join us:

Sat, October 13
Winona Middle School Concourse

Fun activities, Iron Man obstacle course, healthy snacks, free journal & jump rope to those who register!
Healthy Kids Club is a year-long partnership launched by Winona Health and supported by many area community health, rec, social service, educational, and business groups. The goal is to encourage children ages 6-11 to live healthy, make smart food choices, and maintain active lifestyles.
For more info visit
If you can't make it to the event & want to join Healthy Kids Club, email us at or call 457-4161.

Library Storytimes

Storytimes are held every Tuesday in October & November at
Winona Public Library, 151 W 5th St:
Toddler Tales (for babes & toddlers), 10-10:20am
Preschool Stories (for 3-5 year olds), 10:30-11am
All in the Family Night (all ages), 6:30-7pm
No sign-ups, just come when you can! Storytimes can include book sharing, poetry & rhyme time, puppetry or fingerplays, music & movement, basic sign language or Spanish, and an occasional craft or snack. Questions? Call Lezlea at 452-4592.
See ya at the library!

La Leche League of Winona NEW Meeting Schedule

LLL of Winona meets on 2nd Mondays of each month from 9:30-11am (Series Mtg) and 1st Saturdays of each month from 10:30-noon (Toddler Mtg).
Meetings are held at 1st Congregational Church, 161 W Broadway, Winona. Refreshments & play area for kids provided.
La Leche League of Winona provides breastfeeding info and support for all mothers desiring to breastfeed. Learn from experienced mothers and accredited Leaders, check out books from our extensive lending library, and find out more online at
For more info, contact Linda at 507-453-9783 or Heidi at 507-961-0094

Winona Area Autism Spectrum Disorder Support Group

The Winona Area Autism Spectrum Disorder Support Group is a newly formed group for families, friends, and primary providers of persons with ASD (including Asperger's PDD/NOS or other related disorders). Please join us for our first meeting & be part of the planning for this new group:
Mon, October 8, 2007, 6-7:30pm at Goodview Elementary preschool classrooms, 5100 W 9th St in Goodview. Snack provided.
Future meeting dates: Mon, November 5, 2007, 6-7:30pm &
Mon, December 10, 2007, 6-7:30pm
On-site childcare provided by Home & Community Options, funded by Winona County Interagency Early Intervention Committee
For more details, contact: Stacey Marg, Parent Facilitator ~ 452-8731 Or
Karen Bunkowski, Social Worker ~ 457-6264

Friday, October 5, 2007

Chocolate Milk and Kids

Should young children be able to drink up to two cups of chocolate milk a day while at school? That's the questions currently being discussed in local Early Childhood Family Education classes.

Kids attending local schools typically get to choose white or chocolate milk at lunchtime, and children in kindergarten may also receive chocolate milk at snack time. Not surprisingly, most choose chocolate over white milk. On the upside, kids are more likely to drink chocolate milk, meaning they get the calcium and Vitamin D they need. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, children age 4-8 need 800 milligrams a day, which is about the equivalent of three servings of milk. On the downside, each carton contains 26 grams of sugar, according to the nutrition facts label. That's about as much sugar as is found in half a cup of Ben & Jerry's New York Super Fudge Chunk ice cream, a York Peppermint Patty, or an 8 ounce can of Sierra Mist. But...chocolate milk typically contains only twice as much sugar as white milk, which contains 12 grams of sugar. And the sugar content of chocolate milk is about equivalent to that found in most unsweetened fruit juices.

So should kids be given such a sugary snack, even if it helps them get the calcium they need for growing bones? Experts offer differing opinions, although most seem to think the trade-off is worth it. Below, you'll find a sampling of some of those opinions. After reading them, weigh in with your own opinion by clicking on "comments."

American Dietetics Association: Regular or Flavored? The Benefits of Milk
"Getting children to drink more milk is a big issue for parents. If you're struggling to convince your children to drink more milk, try adding flavor to it. Research has shown that students who drink flavored milk have higher calcium and milk intake and lower sugar-sweetened beverage intakes. Like unflavored milk, chocolate and other flavored milk supplies calcium, phosphorus, protein, riboflavin and vitamin D that people of all ages need.

"For chocolate milk, the only difference from white milk is an additional 60 calories per 8-ounce serving from the added sweetener, and chocolate or cocoa. For most people, the health benefits outweigh extra calories the milk may contain."

Vincent Iannelli, M.D.: The Case Against Chocolate Milk (
"The biggest case against chocolate milk is that adding any flavoring to milk adds extra sugar and calories to an otherwise healthy drink. Even the newer 'no sugar added' varieties, like the Nesquik Chocolate No Sugar Added brand, has 3g of extra milk sugar and an extra 40 calories. And the more traditional varieties can add up to 18g of sugar and 90 calories per serving, which more than doubles the amount of calories that you would get from just the glass of milk....

"Although milk is an important drink and an easy way for your child to get calcium and Vitamin D into his diet, it is usually best to encourage your kids to drink plain white milk. Adding chocolate flavoring just gives your child unnecessary sugar and calories. If your child won't drink plain milk, you might offer alternative sources of calcium before jumping to flavoring his milk with chocolate, as it is usually difficult to get kids to later go back to drinking plain milk once they start drinking chocolate milk."

Dr. Alan Greene: Chocolate Cow (
"Parents are often reluctant to let their children drink too much chocolate (or otherwise flavored) milk, concerned that this will give their kids too much sugar or fat. Actually, a glass of flavored milk contains less sugar than many juices, fruit drinks, or sodas. Furthermore, a University of Vermont study published in the June 2002 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association culled very interesting information from the from USDA's large Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII). Children who drink flavored milk are more likely to meet the calcium requirements than their peers, and no more likely to have greater sugar or fat intake."

Nutrition Experts Applaud Chocolate Milk As Good-For-You Treat (

"Chocolate milk may be one answer to help curb the excessive consumption of nutrient-void soft drinks, which some experts say is a major contributor to childhood obesity in this country. Studies have shown that kids who drink flavored milk tend to drink fewer sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks, which are the No. 1 source of calories and added sugars in a child's diet.

"Children ages 9 and up who consume more milk -- including chocolate milk -- instead of soft drinks not only have nutritionally superior diets, but they also tend to weigh less than kids who drink more sugary sodas and little milk, according to recent research."

Dietitians of Canada: Chocolate Milk for Toddlers

"Chocolate milk provides the same 15 essential nutrients as white milk. With no more sugar than a glass of unsweetened fruit juice, and no more caffeine than a cup of decaffeinated coffee, chocolate milk made with fresh cows' milk is an excellent choice. Satisfy your urge for chocolate with a glass of chocolate milk. It's a low fat, nutrient -rich choice.

Food Guide Recommended Daily Servings of Milk Products:
Preschoolers: 2 cups or 500 mL of white or chocolate milk and one more Milk Product serving such as: yoghurt 1/3-3/4 cup or 75-175"

Wednesday, October 3, 2007

FDA considers banning cold medicine for kids under 6

From the New York Times:

WASHINGTON, Sept. 28 — Safety experts for the Food and Drug Administration urged the agency on Friday to consider an outright ban on over-the-counter, multisymptom cough and cold medicines for children under 6.

The recommendation, in a 356-page safety review, is the strongest signal yet that the agency may take strong action against the roughly 800 popular medicines marketed in the United States under names like Toddler’s Dimetapp, Triaminic Infant and Little Colds.

The next step in the process is a meeting of outside experts on Oct. 18 and 19 to examine the medicines’ safety and offer recommendations to the agency.

In the new safety review, the agency’s experts suggested that all “infant” cough and cold formulations be removed from the market, and that the droppers, cups and syringes included with products for children be standardized to reduce the risks of confusion and overdose.

The reviewers wrote that there is little evidence that these medicines are effective in young children, and there are increasing fears that they may be dangerous. From 1969 to 2006, at least 54 children died after taking decongestants, and 69 died after taking antihistamines, the report said. And it added that since adverse drug reactions are reported voluntarily and fitfully, the numbers were likely to significantly understate the medicines’ true toll.

Read the whole article at the New York Times.

Nasal Influenza Vaccine Approved for Younger Children

From a press release from the Food and Drug Administration:

On September 19, 2007, FDA approved the nasal influenza vaccine FluMist for use in children between the ages of 2 and 5. Approval for the vaccine, which contains a weakened form of the live virus and is sprayed in the nose, was previously limited to healthy children 5 years of age and older and to adults up to age 49. FluMist is manufactured by MedImmune Vaccines, Inc., Gaithersburg , Md.

"The goal of preventing influenza is now more attainable with the availability of FluMist for younger children," says Jesse L. Goodman, M.D., director of FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. "This approval also offers parents and health professionals a needle-free option for squeamish toddlers, who may be reluctant to get a traditional influenza shot."

Until now, there were only two influenza vaccines licensed in the U.S. for children under age 5. Fluzone, manufactured by sanofi pasteur Inc., Swiftwater , Pa. , is indicated for people over 6 months of age. Fluvirin, made by Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Ltd, Liverpool, England, is available for children age 4 and older.
Safety and Effectiveness

Approximately 6,400 infants and children age 6 months to 59 months received FluMist in three studies to support the vaccine's safety and effectiveness. Two studies compared FluMist to placebo (no vaccine), both of which demonstrated the vaccine's effectiveness in preventing influenza illness.

A third study compared FluMist to an inactivated or "killed" seasonal influenza vaccine shot. The results showed that there were 53 cases of influenza among 3,900 children who received FluMist compared to 93 cases among the same number of children who received an inactivated or “killed” seasonal influenza vaccine shot.

Commonly observed adverse events from the vaccine were generally mild and most often included runny nose and/or nasal congestion, as well as a slight fever in children 2 to 6 years of age.

Who Should NOT Receive FluMist?

* Children under the age of 2 should not receive FluMist because there was an increased risk of hospitalization and wheezing for this age group during the clinical trials.
* FluMist should not be administered to anyone with asthma or to children under the age of 5 years with recurrent wheezing because of the potential for increased wheezing after receiving the vaccine.
* People who are allergic to any of FluMist's components, including eggs or egg products, should also not receive the vaccine.

Vaccination Recommendations

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all children age 6 months to 59 months receive a vaccination to protect against influenza.

Studies have shown that children younger than 5 years had rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations similar to those among individuals age 50 through 64 years, emphasizing the need for improved influenza prevention efforts for this younger population.

Tuesday, October 2, 2007

WinonaKids Posts now available by e-mail

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From the American Academy of Pediatrics:

Breastfeeding does not cause early childhood tooth decay, according to a new study. "Association Between Infant Breastfeeding and Early Childhood Caries in the United States" analyzed data on oral health, infant feeding, and numerous other factors among children ages 2 to 5, in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Despite some reports that link breastfeeding, especially prolonged breastfeeding, with dental caries, this study found no such increased risk. In contrast, maternal smoking was found to increase the risk for dental caries.

Halloween Safety Tips from the AAP


Halloween is an exciting time of year for kids, and to help ensure they have a safe holiday, here are some tips from the AAP.


-- Plan costumes that are bright and reflective. Make sure that shoes fit well and that costumes are short enough to prevent tripping, entanglement or contact with flame.
-- Consider adding reflective tape or striping to costumes and Trick-or-Treat bags for greater visibility.
-- Because masks can limit or block eyesight, consider non-toxic makeup and decorative hats as safer alternatives. Hats should fit properly to prevent them from sliding over eyes.
-- When shopping for costumes, wigs and accessories look for and purchase those with a label clearly indicating they are flame resistant.
-- If a sword, cane, or stick is a part of your child's costume, make sure it is not sharp or too long. A child may be easily hurt by these accessories if he stumbles or trips.
-- Obtain flashlights with fresh batteries for all children and their escorts.
-- Teach children how to call 9-1-1 (or their local emergency number) if they have an emergency or become lost.


-- Small children should never carve pumpkins. Children can draw a face with markers. Then parents can do the cutting.
-- Votive candles are safest for candle-lit pumpkins.
-- Candlelit pumpkins should be placed on a sturdy table, away from curtains and other flammable objects, and should never be left unattended.


-- To keep homes safe for visiting trick-or-treaters, parents should remove from the porch and front yard anything a child could trip over such as garden hoses, toys, bikes and lawn decorations.
-- Parents should check outdoor lights and replace burned-out bulbs.
-- Wet leaves should be swept from sidewalks and steps.
-- Restrain pets so they do not inadvertently jump on or bite a trick-or-treater.


-- A parent or responsible adult should always accompany young children on their neighborhood rounds.
-- If your older children are going alone, plan and review the route that is acceptable to you. Agree on a specific time when they should return home.
-- Only go to homes with a porch light on.
-- Because pedestrian injuries are the most common injuries to children on Halloween,
remind Trick-or Treaters:
- Stay in a group and communicate where they will be going.
- Carry a mobile phone for quick communication.
- Remain on well-lit streets and always use the sidewalk.
- If no sidewalk is available, walk at the far edge of the roadway facing traffic.
- Never cut across yards or use alleys.
- Only cross the street as a group in established crosswalks (as recognized by local custom). Never cross between parked cars or out driveways.
- Don't assume the right of way. Motorists may have trouble seeing Trick-or-Treaters. Just because one car stops, doesn't mean others will!
- Law enforcement authorities should be notified immediately of any suspicious or unlawful activity.


-- A good meal prior to parties and trick-or-treating will discourage youngsters from filling up on Halloween treats.
-- Consider purchasing non-food treats for those who visit your home, such as coloring books or pens and pencils.
-- Wait until children are home to sort and check treats. Though tampering is rare, a responsible adult should closely examine all treats and throw away any spoiled, unwrapped or suspicious items.
-- Try to ration treats for the days following Halloween.

Have a safe and happy Halloween!

(c) 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics.


This site is for you if you're a parent, grandparent, professional, or community member who wants to support Winona's youngest citizens--kids ages 0-5.